Technical Briefs

Technical Brief: Tips and Tricks–Implementing the GFIPM Framework in Microsoft’s Active Directory Federation Services
Justice organizations need ways to provide secured access to multiple agency information systems with a single log-on. The Global Federated Identity and Privilege Management (GFIPM) framework is the national standard for cryptographically-secure federated identity management and secure single sign-on capabilities. This brief provides guidance to justice stakeholder on how to implement GFIPM using Microsoft’s AD FS as an identity provider.


Technical Brief: Exploring the Semantic Equivalents In a NIEM and HL7 Message
Individuals who enter, leave or return to incarceration present challenges to justice and healthcare practitioners who seek to improve the medical, health, and treatment services provided to these individuals. There is significant value in accurately sharing offender/patient identification and contact information among both communities—and determining the degree of commonality existing in corrections and healthcare systems. This Technical Brief explores the practicality of exchanging information contained in frequently used justice and healthcare information exchanges to facilitate more effective treatment, ensure continuity of care, and reduce recidivism. This brief also examines the content of a typical justice booking or intake record—represented in NIEM, the justice community data standard—with a similar message in the predominant health community data standard, HL7, to determine the degree to which semantic equivalencies exist.

(This brief is a companion to another SEARCH Technical Brief, A Comparative Analysis of HL7 and NIEM: Enabling Justice-Health Data Exchange. That document described the evolution, structure, and intended use of these data models and touched on their potential overlap.)


Technical Brief: Comparative Analysis of Common Charge Tables
The justice community has developed multiple ways to represent and describe offenses, particularly in the various systems these stakeholders use. As system interoperability grows, justice stakeholders share this charge information. Bridging these various systems by developing and sharing a common set of offense/charge definitions adds fidelity to the data that justice stakeholders increasingly share with each other. This can be accomplished by combining the respective requirement of each stakeholder into a common charge table structure that all stakeholders can use—as well as mapping these charges to the national justice data model defined by NIEM. This enables state and local justice stakeholders to more effectively share data with other states.

This Technical Brief provides a comparative analysis of common charge tables used in six states to determine the minimal core elements that a charge table should include, and identifies appropriate NIEM elements for each. It is intended to illustrate this process, as a resource to justice stakeholders, and to provide options for defining and representing the individual elements involved.



Technical Brief: A Unified Modeling Language Approach to Modeling NIEM Exchanges
—Overview and Scenario Planning
—Analyzing Requirements

These companion documents provide an approach to using UML 2.0 to model web services associated with exchanges that are compliant with the National Information Exchange Model (NIEM) and Global Reference Architecture (GRA). They present a “best practice” process to creating a UML model that fully conveys the business and technical information needed to define, develop, and deploy exchange services.

(A NIEM Information Exchange Package Document (IEPD) defines a recurring message in XML and is built to satisfy information exchange business requirements. A GRA Service Specification also describes other required aspects of information exchange implementations, including access controls, security, policy automation, transmission protocol, and others. Both NIEM and GRA are closely associated with Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), as is UML. UML provides features and techniques to model and assemble components into orchestrated SOA services.)

The first brief provides an overview of UML and discusses features and techniques that modelers can use to support the Scenario Planning phase of IEPD development. The brief discusses the UML diagrams that support the Analyze Requirements and Map and Model phases and briefly discusses the service infrastructure environment.

techbrief-intermed Technical Brief-The Value of Using Intermediaries in a Service-Oriented Architecture
This brief explains the role and critical value of intermediary services in a service-oriented architecture, which allow for more agile (centralized) management of policies, service consumers, and service providers. The brief provides an introduction to intermediaries, explains different information flow archetypes, describes an intermediary-based service modeling framework, and offers examples of practical implementations.
hl7-neim Technical Brief- A Comparative Analysis of HL7 and NIEM: Enabling Justice-Health Data Exchange
Incarcerated offenders who eventually return to the community often have medical and mental health issues that persist post-confinement, which then require treatment by community care providers. Offender reentry programs seek to facilitate the successful transition of offenders, including improving offenders’ continuity of care so they don’t experience disrupted medical and mental health treatment.

However, improving continuity of care to those individuals who enter, leave, or return to the justice system presents business and technical challenges for justice and health practitioners. This brief examines the standards that are currently being used by the justice and health communities to support sharing information. It addresses the issue of how to communicate or exchange basic information about an individual between the justice and health communities in order to improve timeliness and delivery of needed medical, health, and treatment services.

tech-brief-whyimportant Technical Brief-Enterprise Strategic Planning for Justice Information Sharing: Why It’s Important
When developing technology solutions to obtain and share justice information, it is important for organizations to plan their efforts carefully. This is particularly true when the information is shared within a justice and public safety enterprise that spans agency and jurisdictional boundaries. The justice enterprise is complex and can involve multiple participants, differing governing processes and rules, distinct business needs, and competing resources. Effective strategic planning is essential to achieve success in this environment—and it must focus on building a shared vision among all stakeholders in the greater information sharing enterprise.

This brief explores the benefits of following an Enterprise Strategic Planning (ESP) methodology when initiating an information sharing program with local, regional, state, and/or federal partners. SEARCH developed this ESP methodology based on the principles of Enterprise Architecture (EA). This is a companion document to the Technical Brief, Enterprise Strategic Planning: A Methodology to Build a Shared Vision for Justice Information Sharing

tech-brief-methodology Technical Brief-Enterprise Strategic Planning: A Methodology to Build a Shared Vision for Justice Information Sharing
Enterprise Strategic Planning (ESP) is a methodology SEARCH developed that focuses on building a shared vision among stakeholders of an information sharing enterprise. The intent is to provide a process that jurisdictions can use to develop a comprehensive, enterprise-wide plan to share justice information among local, regional, state, and/or federal partners. This guide introduces the ESP methodology and discusses the key components of this approach.

In conjunction, download and use this modifiable Enterprise Strategic Plan template:
Enterprise Strategic Plan

TB-UsingOSItoImplementGRA Technical Brief-Using Open Source Infrastructure to Implement the Global Reference Architecture
The Global Reference Architecture (GRA) is an information exchange solution designed to cut 80% of implementation time and costs for state and local justice agencies through reuse of established promising practices in IT architecture and design. Organizations that implement the GRA must choose a technology infrastructure. This Technical Brief discusses one approach to developing a GRA-conformant information sharing infrastructure using open source components. These require no licensing costs, and provide a viable and cost-effective strategy for implementing the GRA.
TB-JavaToolsNDEx_IEPD Technical Brief-Using Java Tools to Implement the National Data Exchange Information Exchange Package Documentation
The Law Enforcement National Data Exchange (N-DEx) is the FBI’s national repository of law enforcement incident and offender data; it has the ability to detect relationships between people, vehicles/property, location, and/or crime characteristics contained in these data. It supports investigative activities across jurisdictional boundaries—enhancing information sharing at all levels of government. But justice agencies must first develop an N-DEx Information Exchange Package Documentation (IEPD), which uses national models and standards to simplify the process to implement connectivity to N-DEx and enable cross-agency information sharing. This Technical Brief outlines three common approaches justice agencies can use to work with XML in Java in order to implement the N-DEX IEPD, and addresses the advantages and drawbacks of each.
TB-GRA_SSDWorkshopPrimer Technical Brief-Global Reference Architecture Service Specification Development Workshops: A Primer for Facilitators
This Technical Brief provides meeting facilitators a best practice approach to service specification package (SSP) development using the GRA based on the experience, expertise, and lessons learned from the Global Services Task Team (STT). It focuses on the steps within the SSP development methodology that involve interactions with subject matter experts (SMEs), and provides a step-by-step guide to working with SMEs to gather the business information needed to develop a service specification. It also includes suggestions to facilitate an SSP development workshop.
TB-ServiceManJusticeIT Technical Brief-Using Principles of Service Management to Manage Justice Information Technology Services
IT services are the delivery of expertise and products by an IT provider that support the customer’s business processes—often including a combination of resources, people, processes, and technology to maintain an adequate level of service. This Technical Brief describes how principles of IT Service Management (ITSM) can benefit IT operations in the justice environment. It also provides a set of 10 service catalog templates that agencies can use to start developing a Configuration Management Database (CMDB), a tool that IT managers and staff use to define and track changes to the services they manage.

Download and use these modifiable service catalog templates:
Service Description-Email
Service Description-File, Print, and Document Management
Service Description-Local Area Network
Service Description-Database Hosting
Service Description-Internet
Service Description-Criminal Justice Information System Interface
Service Description-Telephony
Service Description-Web Hosting
Service Description-Help Desk
Service Description-Application Development

Technical Brief-Model-driven Development of NIEM Information Exchange Package Documentation
This brief focuses on another benefit of a UML Profile for IEPDs: the ability to support model-driven development of IEPDs, and development of IEPDs that fit within a model-driven architecture.
Technical Brief-Web Services and NIEM: Realizing the Value of Available Tools
This brief focuses on the value of Web Services Description Language (WSDL) to software developers, who can use WSDL definitions to produce software code for the intersystem sharing of information; demonstrates the ability of several available tools to create programming code based on NIEM schemas; and demonstrates that the web services tool space has matured to the point that there are no longer significant barriers to the use of NIEM with web services and WSDL.
Technical Brief-A Service-Oriented Architecture Primer for Executives: Why You Should Care
This brief outlines the business case for using SOA, and better prepares executives to make key decisions and facilitate a successful integration strategy.
Technical Brief-Using NIEM With Web Services
This brief explains the crucial relationship between NIEM IEPD and WSDL to support cross-domain information sharing.
Technical Brief–How to Display Suspicious Activity Reports in Google Earth
The graphical display of geographic information can provide law enforcement officers and intelligence analysts with a powerful tool to understand, interrupt, and prosecute criminal activity. For instance, displaying a related set of suspicious activity reports (SARs) on a map can illuminate relationships between activities and the environment in which they occur, leading to valuable insights and new intelligence. This brief outlines how to use Google Earth and associated NIEM IEPD standards to display geospatial information.
Technical Brief–The Benefits of Using JIEM® to Capture Privacy Requirements
This brief identifies the benefits of using the Justice Information Exchange Model framework and tool to capture privacy requirements. Identifying protected information and documenting privacy policy rules is a key step to protecting privacy while meeting the growing need to share information.
Technical Brief–Transforming Hierarchical Structures Into Associations
This brief addresses the problem of transforming XML documents (also called “instances” or “messages”) between differing information exchange models.
Technical Brief–Modeling Exchange Requirements: Justice Information Exchange Model and Business Process Modeling Notation
This brief articulates the complementary relationship between JIEM® and BPMN, which can be used to model exchange requirements.
Karen Lissy

Ms. Karen Lissy is a Justice Information Services Specialist for the Law and Policy Program of SEARCH, The National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics. In this position, she provides assistance to state and local justice and public safety agencies to collect, curate, and use National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) data and computerized criminal history record (CCH/CHRI) information for policy analysis and development.

She also guides justice and related organizations in how to craft and implement laws, policies, practices, and technology applications to effectively collect and use CCH and related justice/public safety data; address legal, policy, and regulatory issues associated with CCH data; better manage and operate criminal justice information and identification systems; and develop security and privacy policies that protect justice information sharing systems.

Ms. Lissy has nearly two decades of research and data analysis experience, having led projects and tasks in support of two agencies within the U.S. Department of Justice’s Office of Justice Programs (the Bureau of Justice Statistics and National Institute of Justice), as well as the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, and multiple foundations, including Ford, Annie E. Casey, and Hewlett. Prior to joining SEARCH in October 2020, Ms. Lissy served as a Social Science Researcher at RTI International, as a regional Crime Analyst for the Redmond (WA) Police Department, and as Director of a research program with the Harvard Center for Risk Analysis. Beginning in 2012, Ms. Lissy’s work has focused on improving data in law enforcement to answer policy questions and improve community/police relations.

Ms. Lissy earned a Bachelor’s degree in Public Policy from Duke University, and a Master’s in Public Health from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Michael Mackay

Mr. Michael Mackay is an Information Sharing Developer for SEARCH, The National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics. As part of the Software and Data Engineering Program (SDEP) team, he plans, develops, implements, and deploys information sharing systems on behalf of SEARCH clients in local, state, tribal, and Federal government settings. He also provides programming, configuration, and testing assistance, and consults on implementation architecture and design with clients. 

Mr. Mackay supports justice, public safety, and homeland security information sharing nationwide through SDEP services that include software architecture and systems design, application development, deployment and support, data management services, and direct technical assistance and training. These services offer capabilities that include federated query, authentication access/control, subscription/notification, process/workflow automation, data analysis, and more. 

Prior to joining SEARCH in 2021, Mr. Mackay worked as a Software Engineering Intern for TDM Business Toole Suite, where he provided software development support using Java frameworks, implemented relational database models using MySQL, and designed GUI components using NetBeans. 

Mr. Mackay will work in an Agile development environment, a methodology that SEARCH embraces that focuses on incremental development and delivery, collaboration in a team approach, and rapid and flexible response to change throughout the development cycle. 

Mr. Mackay earned a bachelor’s degree in Computer Science and Applied Mathematics and Statistics from Stony Brook University, New York.